I did my undergraduate major in psychology at the U of MN. Then I went on to my M.A. degree in counseling and guidance at NMSU in Las Cruces NM. Finally, I did doctoral work at TN state University in Nashville, TN. Towards the end of my M.A. degree I became interested in the philosophy of science. This is the area of philosophy that deals with how and why science functions the way it does. Also, at this same time I became interested in diagnostic reasoning. This is the understanding of how clinicians actually go through the cognitive process of making a diagnosis of the patient. However, it includes the errors made, cognitive and social biases that influence the process, and what is the “optimal” process. I also was trained in psychological testing and assessing individuals.